Using our this chart:
In the left column there is an top to bottom range from 2 to 60. This column will tell you which nozzle to use once you find the PSI and GPM.
First look at the top row from left to right. This is the PSI of your pump. If you have a TS2021 pump we know that the max PSI is 3500.
The larger area to the right of the nozzle size and below the PSI range is the Gallons Per mMinute.
First find the top to bottom column just below the PSI range. Using the TS2021 as an example you will find a GPM range from 1.87 gpm to 56.12.
We know the TS2021 is a 5.6 GPM pump so, under the 3500 PSI, scroll down until you see 5.61. Now scroll over to the left from the 5.61 to the Size column on the left had side and you will see that the TS2021 pump uses a #6 nozzle.
The numbers on the side of the nozzle:
If you want a ‘0’ (zero) degree with a #6 hole size the numbers engraved on the side of the nozzle would be 0006. If you want a 15, 25 0r 40 degree nozzle you would see 1506, 2506 or 4006.
So which is better for what? Typically a ‘0’ degree would be used to quickly break apart a heavy mass. Truck frames, chewing gum, mortar and yes – even that pesky wasp nest that is keeping you from finishing the job.
A 15 degree nozzle is best use for cleaning things line ‘fifth-wheels’ on tractors, frames on tractor trailer bodies and baked on carbon in the top rail of over the road trailer bodies. A 25 degree is the most popular of all the nozzles. This is a general cleaning nozzle. The 40 degree nozzle is often use as a cleaning nozzle but is most often used as a ‘dusting’ nozzle or high pressure chemical application nozzle. It is not the best choice for the contractor who is particular about the finished product.
EnviroSpec’s Technical Library
Basic Function And Type
Nozzles are the last part that the water touches on it’s way out of the pressure washer. The spray nozzle is a small simple component that controls how much pressure and water flow is produced. The pump simply moves a certain amount of water. The restriction created at the nozzle is what causes the pressure to develop. If the spray nozzle hole size is so small that the pump can’t force the water through it at the pumps rated pressure, then the water flowing from the nozzle is reduced. The unloader valve bypasses the extra water back to the pump. An oversized spray nozzle orifice will allow the flow of almost all the water from the pump at a reduced pressure. The way to obtain the most cleaning power from a machine is to closely match the spray nozzle orifice size to the flow and pressure ratings of the pump. Spray nozzles are manufactured with various fan spray patterns.
Section: Understanding Degree of Fan
The most commonly used fan patterns are 0, 15, 25, 40, and 65 degrees. The higher the number of the fan, the wider the fan pattern is. A zero degree nozzle sprays in a pencil point pattern, which is a straight stream. This pattern yields the greatest surface impact. Unfortunately it isn’t very practical for most wash applications because it covers such a small area. The practical answer when using a zero degree nozzle is the rotating nozzle. The characteristics of a fifteen-degree fan pattern are a tight fan pattern with excellent surface impact. The edges of the fan, because they end so sharply on the surface, sometimes make blending the cleaning result uniformly very difficult. A twenty-five degree of fan is the most popular. It is wider than fifteen-degree, making it easier to wash most common surfaces. The forty-degree of fan is also popular, it is a wider fan and the edges don’t have as sharp an impact on the surface. This makes blending on the surface easier, which yields an even result on the wash surface. The down side of wider fan patterns is the spreading out of the surface impact. A sixty-five degree fan pattern is not popular for high pressure washing because the impact is too diffused for most work. This fan pattern is commonly acknowledged to be best for detergent application. The wide fan allows for rapid surface coverage.
Section: Threaded Nozzles
Industry standard for the thread size on spray nozzles is ¼”. They fit into the industry standard ¼” trigger gun outlet port. The have NPT (national pipe thread). This type of thread gets tighter as it is threaded into another component. This is done to help seal the connection. Some accessories require 1/8″ threaded nozzles, duct cleaners and some surface cleaners for example.
Section: Quick Connect Nozzles
These nozzles have a quick connect ¼” plug incorporated as part of the nozzle. Most have a color-coding system that allows for easy fan spray identification. Red is zero, yellow is 15, green is 25, and white is 40. These nozzles must be connected into a quick connect coupler to use. When changing these nozzles it is very important to make sure the coupler locks down properly onto the nozzle plug. A habit of aiming the nozzle away from surfaces when first spraying is also a good idea. An improperly installed quick connect nozzle can be propelled out of the coupler and it can cause damage or injury.
Section: Reading the Nozzle Size & Fan
Nozzles are marked to indicate both orifice size and the degree of fan. Nozzles sometimes have the information stamped into the surface, and some nozzles have the information laser printed on the surface. Both methods of identification can wear off with use. Manufacturers add numbers and letters around the real information, but once you know how to pick out the real information it becomes easy to understand. First look for the degree of fan. After the degree of fan the orifice size will be listed. Orifice sizes less than ten will have a zero in front of them. Half sizes will have a decimal point with two numbers, like 6.5.
Section: Nozzle to Surface Distance
The pressure created by the nozzle is created at the nozzle itself. As soon as the water stream starts to travel away from the nozzle the pressure drops rapidly. The force of the spray on a surface demonstrates this. Rarely is a nozzle held right up to the surface. Doing so can damage many surfaces. Generally a range of distance between four and ten inches seems to be the practical washing zone. A distance of over ten inches away from the surface generally is used for rinsing because at this distance the spray has very little impact. The most important factor governing how far from the surface the nozzle should be is the lack of damage to the surface combined with the cleaning result. On some wash jobs, a good example is house siding, you want to be a good cleaning distance, and at the same distance have the fan pattern hit on the top and the bottom of the clapboard. Depending on the distance required to obtain the desired cleaning result, the degree of fan can be changed so it impacts the area you desire.
Section: Nozzle Wear
Spray nozzles wear out rapidly. The velocity of the water being propelled through the orifice as well as chemicals acting on the metal causes the orifice to wear larger. The orifice size is the biggest determining factor in the creation of pressure. As the orifice enlarges, the equipment pressure goes down. The use of a pressure gauge is valuable in determining how much pressure has been lost and when nozzle replacement is desirable. Nozzle wear or improper sizing is the most common factor that causes low-pressure problems. Do not attempt to compensate too much for nozzle wear by over adjusting the unloader valve. This increases the spike that occurs when the trigger gun is released. Consequently, it also increases hose failure, and wear on many equipment components.
Section: Sizing Nozzles for Pressure
The best way to adjust the pressure produced by a pressure washer is by increasing or decreasing the nozzle orifice size. It is important to know how to use a nozzle chart to accomplish this. On a standard nozzle chart, the top column that runs left to right is the pressure that you want to obtain. The left column top to bottom is the nozzle orifice size designation. The top to bottom column next to the orifice size column indicates the actual orifice measurement. The numbers in the shaded boxes all indicate gallons per minute of flow. The nozzle orifice size designation is obtained by the flow of water that goes through that hole size at 4000 PSI. So if you look at a nozzle chart the gallons per minute shown under the 4000 PSI column always is the same as the nozzle orifice size designation. When the water pressure is reduced below 4000 PSI, less water goes through the nozzle per minute. Pressures over 4000 PSI force more water through the nozzle each minute. Because of these facts, the nozzle chart becomes necessary. Using different nozzle orifice sizes to change pressure is better than adjusting the unloader valve. When the unloader valve is adjusted to lower the pressure the gallon per minute flow is also reduced. The flow is very important when working. Flow enables the operator to apply detergent, wash, and rinse at peak speed. Reducing the flow from four to three gallons per minute will increase cleaning time on average by 25%. Another words, a typical four hour job will now take five hours.
Section: Chemical Nozzles
These nozzles are used with downstream chemical injection to provide chemical. They are available in either threaded or quick connect styles. The most common orifice sizes used for chemical nozzles are 30, 40, or 50. The large orifice size decreases the pressure created by the equipment. A wide fan pattern is usually desired with a chemical nozzle to provide quick and even surface coverage. The threaded nozzles can be used with a variety of nozzle holders or with a dual lance. This enables the equipment operator to switch from low-pressure chemical to high-pressure washing with clear water without having to return to the equipment. When using quick connect nozzles, switching the high-pressure nozzle with the chemical nozzle provides the same ability.